About the biographies of cities in many respects similar to the fate of people. They are born, get the names, grow, acquire a profession ... Nikolayev initially received a profession, and then the name and status of the city. Our city lives and works in the beautiful fertile land south of Ukraine. Here sultry steppe meets the sea. Black Sea steppe remembers Cimmerian horsemen and bearded Scythians. To this day, stormy short summer rains washed out of the fertile land of the local fragments of Greek amphorae, blackened coins of different ages and states, Turkish and Cossack clay pipes. From the first centuries of our era, these places are gradually populated the Slavic tribes, and with the end of the tenth century, the area is the current Nikolaev, became part of Kievan Rus. The Dnieper-Bug estuary lay the trade route from the Vikings to the Greeks, were loaded with honey, wax, amber, furs boat Rusich in distant countries. Many foreigners encroached on pribugsky edge. More than two centuries, originally Slavic lands were under the double oppression - the Tatars and Mongols. And it is here, on the southern porubezhe, to defend the native land brave knights of freedom - Zaporozhye Cossacks, breast shading Ukraine from the Turkish and Tatar weapons.
Detail of a diorama at the Museum of Shipbuilding and Fleet
For many years, Russia's state waged a protracted war with Turkey and its vassals for the right of access to the Black Sea. In 1787, after the victory in the Crimea, defeating the enemy of the Bug, Prince Grigory Potemkin besieged fortress Ochakov. The siege dragged on for the victory needed a modern navy, surpassing in its power to Turkish. One Kherson shipyard was unable to cope with the strategic objective to accelerate the equipping flota.Togda at the direction of GA Potemkin his right hand Brigadier ML Faleev found a place for a new shipyard at the mouth of the river Ingul. After seeing this place Grigory Potemkin was delighted, he came the project of creation is here the grand admiralty with shops, factories - the cradle of the future of the Russian navy. So even before the birth of our city was a profession. At the command of Prince Potemkin in the desired location in 1788 and was also a new shipyard, which in the beginning called differently: Ingulskoy, Ust-Ingul, Wharf on Ingul. Around the shipyard town grew rapidly, yet untitled. The name of the settlement - Nick - was given to Potemkin August 27, 1789 in memory of Russian troops capture the Turkish fortress Ochakov a Christian feast day of St. Nicholas of Myra - the patron saint of seafarers on Dec. 6, 1788 g, and in October 1790 was held on approval Nikolaeva as a city of the Russian government. Frankly, at this moment in the newborn city of the documents were only 26 yards and residents: 105 men and 42 women. However, after 2 years in 1792 in the city already was 1 church, 100 barracks, 13 shops, 158 stone buildings, 61 dwelling, 209 clay-walled cottages, 149 shops and 1566 residents and 1734 temporary workers. Pervoposelentsy city were recruits from the peasants, mostly from the northern provinces.
Less than a year after the founding of the shipyard has repaired her sailing ships and rowing boats, and in December 1789 still unfinished, she was ready for the construction of large ships. The first ship - a 44-gun frigate "St. Nicholas" was built at the shipyard on January 5 1790. and launched on 25 August that same year. She worked as a young shipyard, grew up and built a new city. To the west of the shipyard grew civilian settlements, to the east - the military. Since the first years of its existence the city was built according to plan. Initially, these works were supervised by engineer I. Knyazev, but early in 1790 by famous Russian architect Ivan Starov was drawn up a master plan for the city. They also drafted a number of administrative, religious, court and commercial buildings. Today's straight as an arrow and the street, clear squares in the old quarters of the city center - the embodiment of the old plan. In November 1791 at the shipyard laid the biggest in the Black Sea Fleet 90-gun ship "St. Paul" Launched and August 1794 "Saint Paul" as the best ship of the fleet was the flagship of Admiral Ushakov. Famed admiral kept his flag on it throughout the Mediterranean Company 1798-1802 period